SANTE

COSMETOLOGIE

HEALTH

COSMETOLOGY

Health & Cosmetology

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Health is a major problem in the South and public health has become the priority of many of them. The interaction of international solidarity organizations, NGOs and public and private foundations with local authorities make this area a complex landscape with essential economic issues.

Southern countries are key partners in developing the cosmetics market. On one hand, their economic growth guarantees an expansion of the demand for new cosmetic products adapted to local needs, on the other hand, the richness and diversity of their biological resources make them indispensable for developing new formulations based on natural active ingredients.

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Babesiosis is a malaria-like parasitic disease affecting domestic animal (bovine, equine and canine babesiosis) causing severe haemolytic anaemia leading to the death of infected animals.

At economical level, it is one of the most important arthropodborne diseases of cattle worldwide.

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Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially fatal disease caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). It is estimated that 6 to 7 million people worldwide are infected with this parasite, which causes Chagas disease.

Proteins secreted by parasites of the family Trypanosomatidae play a major role in the infection and in the modulation of the immune response of the host.

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The “thick spot” is the gold standard for malaria diagnosis and allows the measurement of parasite density in infected persons. A drop of blood taken from the fingertip is placed on a glass slide. Under a microscope, the technician then scrolls the blade while pressing a mechanical counter for each parasite and white blood cell detected. This simple technique to implement is time-consuming (an entire slide can take several days) and difficult to read. Moreover, the microscopist is limited to a few fields; the abundance of parasites is then extrapolated to the whole sample, assuming Plasmodium is homogeneously distributed, which is false (the parasites form clusters by places, the results are therefore tainted by error).

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Amebiasis is a major cause of parasitic dysentery in developing countries and is estimated to be second cause of protozoanrelated mortality worldwide. Infection with Entamoeba histolyticacan cause a wide range of manifestations ranging from asymptomatic carriage to amebic dysentery and amebic liver abscess. E.histolytica have been observed to cause infection in 48 million people worldwide.

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In the absence of effective treatment against leishmaniasis and the extent of this public health problem in many part of the world, it is important to provide affected populations with a large-scale preventive: the most suitable would be vaccination.
However, observation remains current: there is no vaccine available against human leishmaniasis.

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Histone deacetylation is necessary for the regulation of genes in the cell cycle, HDACs are prime targets for treating parasitic diseases. Unfortunately, existing HDAC inhibitors often have to be used at high concentrations, and appear to be as active on intracellular parasites as human cells.

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Leptospirosis is a growing public health concern in many tropical and subtropical countries. However, its diagnosis is difficult because of non-specific symptoms and concurrent other endemic diseases. In many regions the laboratory diagnosis is not available due to a lack of preparedness and simple diagnostic assay or difficult access to references laboratories.

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The diagnosis of congenital infections in the newborn is difficult when antigen detection methods are unreliable. The determination of specific antibodies neo-synthesized by the newborn is one of the keys to diagnose congenital infection from birth. But the presence of up to six months of maternal antibodies transferred during pregnancy prevents the detection of antibodies generated by the newborn by conventional methods of serological diagnosis.

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NPK fertilizers are widely used in agriculture, horticulture, private and domestic indoor areas, gardens and parks. Beyond the benefits for the growth of the greenery and crops, these fertilizers have been identified to have an attraction effect for female mosquitoes looking for a place to lay their eggs (Darriet and Corbel 2008; Darriet and al., 2010).

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Three main groups of small molecules: two of them naturally occurring, chalcones and polyacetylenes, the other thieno[2,3-d] pyrimidines [Exo2], were found after phenotypic screening of small molecule libraries by high throughput cell imaging for their synthesis and biological activities targeting tuberculosis, malaria,  leishmaniasis, and Chagas disease.

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The Ebola virus is a highly virulent pathogen for Humans and causes an acute, serious illness which is often fatal if untreated (mortality rates of this hemorrhagic fever reach between 50% and 90%). Due to similar symptoms it can be difficult to distinguish Ebola virus from other infectious diseases such as malaria, typhoid fever and meningitis. Currently most of diagnostics need to be performed in biosafety level 4 laboratories, but in crisis situation there is an urgent need for rapid diagnostics adapted to the field.

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Leishmaniasis is a disease caused by protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania and transmitted by the bite of certain species of the sand fly. Leishmaniasis is considered as a global burden in many regions such as South America,the Mediterranean basin, and the Middle East and Central Asia. The WHO estimated 1.3 million new cases and 20 000 to 30 000 deaths occur annually.

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Plague is still a public health problem in the world and is considers as a re-emerging disease. Yersinia pestis, the causative agent, is also consider as a potential biological weapon, but no efficient vaccine is available.

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The research team selected the best immunogenic regions of the peptides, and developed an antigenic combination using peptides from two P.falciparum lineages. This combination inhibits 100% adhesions of the IE to the CSA making it the best current vaccine candidate for placental malaria.

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The AP-HP (group of all Parisian Hospital, France) thanks to its pharmaceutical division possess some drugs against various diseases (tuberculosis, malaria…) and healthcare troubles.

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An estimated 16 million people were receiving antiretroviral therapy in 2016 (WHO), mostly in Africa. Viral load monitoring in HIV-positive patients is essential for adequate treatment.
The high genetic diversity of HIV-1 is a major challenge for the development of new, efficient and sensitive viral load assays. The main limit of commercialized tests is that they were not designed to detect all circulating HIV-1 variants, especially in West Africa.

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